For the National Science Foundation's explanation of how the Calvin cycle was established contrary to Calvin et al's finding of the light carboxylation reaction, go to NSFfunding.com's Synopsis site.
In 1995-96, along the lines of a molecular mechanism the author Francis K. Fong proposed for chlorophyll photosynthesis in plants, Nick Winograd demonstrated(1) the conversion of sunlight into electricity, a photogalvanic (photovoltaic) effect. Fong proposed the two hydration states of the chlorophyll; Winograd showed experimentally that chlorohpyll a dihydrate was the photoreactive species. In 1978-79, Fong and Galloway demonstrated that the photogalvanic conversion by Winograd was in vitro a result of the chlorophyll water splitting reaction.(2) In 1979, in CO2-saturated solutions, Fong and co-workers showed that this water splitting reaction resulted in photoreduction of carbon to organic fuels.(3) In the course of this activity Diestler and Fong invoked the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation in formulating a nonequilibrium theory of chemical rate processes in condensed media. Here, the photoactivation of a "reactive complex" results in either deactivation through non-radiative multiphon transitions to the ground state or yield the primary photochemical products.
On completion of the Fong-Butcher pathway: from left, Angela Agostiano, Karen Butcher, the auther and Margareta Fong
|The Fong-Butcher pathway|
There exists a steady-state reaction cycle, which mediates the noncyclic path of succrose synthesis and oxygen evolution. This cycle resembles the Calvin cycle, except that, instead of the two molecules of PGA, the two 3-carbon fragments from the splitting of the 6-carbon CO2-RuBP adduct are not the same, one being PGA and the other, PGL. The steady-state rection cycle exists only in the light. On transition from the conditions of light to darkness, it along with its reaction intermediates decay exponnentially to zero.
As long ago as 1845, Mayer recognized the role of sunlight as a source of energy for photosyntehsis, the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic matter. See, Lundegarth, H.: "On Oxidation of Cytochrome f by Light," Physiol. Plantarum, 7, 375-382 (954).
For von Baeyer's original paper on photosynthesis, see, Baeyer, A.: "Ueber die Wasserentziehung urd ihre Bedeutung fur das Pflanzenleben und die Gahrung,"" Ber. deut. chem. Ges., 3, 63-75 (1870). Reviewed in Photosynthesis and Related Processes, I, E. I. Rabinowitch, New York.
Interscience Publishers, p. 246 (1945).
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