This post complements NSFfunding.com's Website on Calvin cycle, the dark reactions in photosynthesis.
There is an interesting discussion on biology-online.org/biology-forum under the title, "the Calvin cycle???help please." First, the universally accepted interpretation of the Calvin cycle is described:
"NADPH is actually electron provided and made blablabla, not hydrogen. And last, but not least this triose called glyceraldehyde phosphate is primarily recycled, that's why is it called 'The Calvin CYCLE,' and why it can work all the time - Just a minor part is transformed to hexose (primarily fructose), the rest has nothing to do with the Calvin cycle."Then, Biology-Online.Org's discussion departs from the accepted interpretation, in that Melvin Calvin, to whom is attributed the Calvin cycle, or the dark reactions in photosynthesis, had nothing to do with the Calvin cycle. The reason is because Calvin and his group at Berkeley published, in their original papers, findings from their C-14 tracer experiments that the "triose called glyceraldehyde phosphate is NOT recycled." Calvin et al reported a carboxylation reaction in photosynthesis which is neither dark nor cyclic, but a photoreductive reaction. The CO2 assimilated from the air by the RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) results in reductive splitting of the 6-C intermediate into one molecule of PGA (phosphoglycerate) and the other a triose, glyceraldehyde phosphate, which condenses to make glucose and, then, starch.
This post provides a detailed analysis of the author Francis K. Fong's discovery of the Calvin cycle, or, the mechanism by which the Calvin cycle, or the dark reactions in photosynthesis, came into being.
B. The Calvin Cycle, an Unlikely Fraud
The NSF explains the discovery in terms of negligence for its flawed review of Fong's NSF proposal, No. DCB 8822928. The explanation was followed by NSF OIG's determination, that the Calvin cycle was a fraud. Unfortunately, this determination was complicated by countermeasures to State Director Keith Luse's (Lugar) commitment of a GAO review, which resulted in the killing of Don MacLauchlan, vice-president of Carbon Reduction, sponsor for DCB 8822928.
This post follows closely NSF Division Director Bruce Umminger's reading of the original papers by Calvin et al; and was necessitated by the belated corroboration, an independent finding by Purdue President and NSB (National Science Board) member France A. Cordova, done in response to Fong's request to clarify PEFCU's payment, in 1978, of the $48,903.81 from Treasury to revenue officers and NSF OIG employees.
The Calvin cycle as an unlikely false claim by a Purdue instructor differs qualitatively from a second, equally improbable false claim by another Purdue researcher, something called the "tabletop thermal bubbles for nuclear fusion involving high-energy particles." Whereas the "tabletop thermal bibles" as a fraud, like most frauds in science, was exposed by the work of others in the field, the Calvin cycle was embraced by those who knew it as a fraud by their own finding of the light carboxylation reaction. Former Purdue President and NSB chairman Steve Beering on the PX 45 tape attributed this difference to the Calvin cycle as the product of a secret procedure called the Blue-Book formula, a money-making proposition by which Purdue trustees used federal reimbursement moneys from PCDF's (Purdue-Calumet Development Foundation) East Chicago Loan and Grant Contract to invest in the Munster Plains real estate development, as described in Fong's reports of 1995 and 1996 to IR Commissioner Richardson.
In the discussion to follow, Fong reproduces NSF's determination of 1989, of how a work of fiction became the Calvin cycle, the universally acclaimed "synthesis in the light of biomass from water and carbon dioxide in the dark." He reports the NSF's demonstration of how the Calvin cycle became established, not by reviewer negligence on the part of NSF program directors, but by a knowing, patterned activity calculated to penetrate the United States Treasury.
C. Margerum's Work of Fiction that Became the Calvin Cycle
In the Calvin cycle the uptake of carbon dioxide by the 5-carbon ribulose bisphosphate, RuBP, results in the release of two molecules of the 3-carbon D-glycerate-3-phosphate, 3-PGA.
With the "high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds" in the ATP, adenosine triphosphate, and the reducing agent, NADPH (the reduced form of NADP+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) obtained from the "Z-scheme of light reactions," the 3-PGA molecules from the RuBP carboxylation then undergo thermally activated reduction in the dark to sugar. Meanwhile, the C-14 experiments by the Berkeley researchers led them to the conclusion that the RuBP carboxylation reaction in the light results in the photoreduction of carbon without the participation of ATP. A review of this finding, which is briefly summarized below, was published in the definitive research monograph on this subject, Bassham,J.A. and Calvin,M. (1957) "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
RuBP + CO2 ────> 3-PGA + 3-PGA (D)
Summing up, in Calvin and Massini (1952) and Wilson and Calvin (1955), Calvin described Reaction (L) as one occurring in the light, in which the PGA undergoes photoreduction to triose without the intervention of the ATP and NADPH.
|Fig.3. 14th ACS NOS program.|
On 7-4-55, the ACS newspaper, Chem. Eng. News 33, 2809 (July 4, 1955), Fig.4, published a story released by Purdue Chemistry instructor Dale W. Margerum. The story established as true and tried the dark reaction cycle in photosynthesis today known as the Calvin cycle.
"Each of the steps in the photosynthetic carbon dioxide reduction cycle has been determined, and it is now possible to define reagent requirements to maintain it.
"The requirement for reduction of one molecule of carbon dioxide is four equivalents hydrogen and three molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Photochemical reactions must be the suppliers of these."
- "When Calvin and Massini (1952) reported the formation of PGA in an overall reaction requiring ribulose [bis]phosphate and CO2 they proposed that the reaction in the light gave one molecule of PGA and one of triose phophate [reaction (L)] but in the dark gave two molecules of PGA [reaction (D)]. Wilson [and Cavlin (1955)] discussed this possibility further ***. We shall present here an argument, based on kinetic data, which indicates that the carboxylation of Ru[B]P in vivo during photosynthesis gives rise to only one molecule of 3-PGA."
Unfortunately, all of that laborious work was wiped out, as the fictitious account published by Margerum in the news media became established as the Calvin cycle, the dark photosynthetic reactions.
C. The Bassham-Benson-Calvin Cycle
- "I googled 'dark reaction cycle' AND 'photosynthesis.' For your convenience, I attach Results 1-10 (Cordova at 4-5) of about 59,700 results. Fosmire has thus shown proof that Dale's authorship of the Chem. Eng. News story (July 4, 1955) contrary to Wilson and Calvin (June 25, 1955) may have created a scientific freak of unspeakable dimensions."'
This patterned activity led Govindjee, among other dark photosynthesists, to use certain alleged "light" with energy in "EMF Units at pH 7" to do a Z scheme of "light reactions." The Calvin cycle, i.e., the dark reaction cycle "in the stroma," as follows cooperates with the light reactions "in the thylakoids," The light reactions provide "ATP and NADPH to the Calvin Cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions." The reducing equivalents from the ATP and NADPH from the "light reactions" convert, "in the dark," the PGA from the Calvin cycle to the sugar level.
|Fig.6. The Z scheme by Govindjee, in which light energy is measured by "emf's at pH7."|
In conclusion, the United States' losses arising from the Calvin cycle are compounded by the community's reliance on the patterned activity reported by Hunter. From this activity arose the Z scheme of two systems, Photosystem I ("P700") and photosystem II ("P680"), embraced by proponents of the Calvin cycle, including those who know, or should have known, better. The Z scheme connects, oddly, a series of "light reactions," in which the alleged "light" is measured not in electron volts, but "in terms of oxidation-reduction potentials (Em) at pH7."
Fong's demonstration of the in vitro chlorophyll water-splitting and carbon dioxide reduction reactions in red light, shown below, serves a useful purpose in accounting for Calvin et al's carboxylation in vivo in the light (L). Even so, dark photosynthesists persist in arguing that red light in a single chlorophyll photosystem does not have sufficient "emf at pH7" to split water and reduce CO2. The Z scheme of two photosystems continues unabated as the "light reactions in photosynthesis" for "storing light energy" in the form of ATP and NADPH, which "cooperate with the dark reactions" in reducing PGA from the Calvin cycle to "make sugar in the dark."
It is believed that all of this kind of "research" is funded by the National Science Foundation on account of Margerum's work of fiction that became the Calvin cycle.
Appendix: Bennett's Two-Pronged Test Question
In view of Cordova's finding, Fong posed for her proper response the two-pronged question (originally designed in the fall of 1989 by Clifford Bennett, NSF OIG Assistant Inspector General for Audit) as follows:
- Do the published studies in reputable research journals, Calvin,M. and Massini,P. (1952) Experientia 8, 445-484Refs. 6-10; Wilson,A.T. and Calvin,M. (1955) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 5948-5957; Bassham, J.A., Shibata, K., Steenberg, K., Bourdon, J. and Calvin, M. (1956) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 78, 4120-4124; Vishniac, W., Horecker, B.L., and Ochoa, S. (1957) Adv. Enzymol. 19, 1-77; Bassham, J.A. and Calvin, M. (1957) "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.; Calvin, M. and Pon, N.G. (1959) J. Cellular Comp. Physiol., 54, Suppl. 1, 51-74; and Bassham, J.A. and Kirk, M. (1960) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 43, 447-464; represent the entire body of Calvin et al and others' published work on the path of carbon in photosynthesis, on which was based the Fong-Butcher model, Fig.2?
- Are there other studies than Margerum's story [(a) Chem. Eng. News. 33, 2809 (July 4, 1955), on which was based Calvin's Centenary Lecture before the Chemical Society in London, (b) Calvin, M. (1956) J. Chem. Soc., 1956, 1895-1915] that would support a conclusion of the dark reaction cycle, for which Calvin claimed the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry?